LECTURA CRITICA� A PROIECTULUI LEGII AZNVA�A?A�MA�NTULUI PREUNIVERSITAR: 5 MOTIVE DE DEZACORD

CINCI MOTIVE PRINCIPALE PENTRU CARE NU SUNT DE ACORD CU LITERA AzI SPIRITUL PROIECTULUI LEGII AZNVA�A?A�MA�NTULUI PREUNIVERSITAR - MARIAN STAAz, PREAzEDINTE, FUNDAA?IA CODECS PENTRU LEADERSHIP, WWW.LMT.RO

Prezentul document reflectA? analiza mea personalA?, A�n nume propriu, a proiectului Legii A�nvA?A?A?mA?ntului preuniversitar, document afiAYat la data de 13.02.2007 pe pagina de internet a Ministerului EducaA?iei AYi CercetA?rii.
Analiza nu este exhaustivA?. Nu mi-am propus acest lucru, datoritA? celui dintA?i motiv A�n baza cA?ruia NU SUNT DE ACORD cu conA?inutul documentului citat (v. paragraful urmA?tor). Ce pun eu A�n locul textului A�n cauzA? nu este o variantA? corectatA?, completatA? AYi A�mbunA?tA?A?itA? a aceluiaAYi text, ci cu totul AYi cu totul altceva: schimbarea adaptivA? a EducaA?iei A�n ansamblul sA?u a�� A�n particular, transformarea complexA? AYi profundA? a subsistemului A�nvA?A?A?mA?ntului preuniversitar, A�n conformitate cu viziunea articulatA? A�n proiectul “AzCOALA PE BUNE” (http://www.lmt.ro/scoala)

PRIMUL MOTIV. Nici litera, nici spiritul documentului NU susA?in legislativ transformarea profundA?, competentA? AYi responsabilA?, a Azcolii ca sistem A�n RomA?nia, ci doar ajustarea corectivA? a acesteia, pe modele funcA?ionale AYi organizaA?ionale depA?AYite, de tipul fostei birocraA?ii comuniste. Documentul NU invitA? la asumarea curajoasA? a schimbA?rii adaptive a EducaA?iei, conservA?nd sistemic AYi sistematic tocmai rezistenA?a la schimbarea sa. Transformarea Azcolii ca sistem este un proces necesar pentru a pune sistemul public al EducaA?iei A�n acord cu cerinA?ele timpului prezent AYi viitor al RomA?niei europene a�� o realitate complet incomparabilA? cu tot ceea ce am trA?it, ca societate, pA?nA? la 31.12.2006.

SOLUA?IA AzCOLII PE BUNE. Formularea problemei schimbA?rii adaptive a EducaA?iei A�n termeni de leadership transformaA?ional AYi punerea A�n fapt a “STRATEGIEI INIA?IERII PROCESULUI TRANSFORMA�RII AzCOLII CA SISTEM AZN ROMA�NIA”(Iesirea din Mediocritate - Schimbarea adaptiva a Educatiei)

UrmA?toarele atarax 25 mg patru motive instanA?iazA? punctual alte patru cauze fundamentale ale dezacordului meu faA?A? de conA?inutul proiectului Legii A�nvA?A?A?mA?ntului preuniversitar.

AL DOILEA MOTIV. Nici litera, nici spiritul documentului NU susA?in legislativ descentralizarea realA? a EducaA?iei, prin transferul complet al autoritA?A?ii AYi responsabilitA?A?ii activitA?A?ilor din unitA?A?ile AYcolare acolo unde ele aparA?in de drept: directorilor AYi consiliilor de administraA?ie. AZn fapt, documentul consfinA?eAYte rolul dominant al DirecA?iilor JudeA?ene de AZnvA?A?A?mA?nt Preuniversitar (art. 87), A�n detrimentul celor mai importante componente ale sistemului educaA?ional preuniversitar a�� grA?diniA?ele, AYcolile generale AYi liceele a�� cA?rora li se conferA? o autoritate aparentA?, fA?rA? pA?rghii de acA?iune consistente A�n planul leadershipului AYi managementului exercitate de directori AYi de consiliile de administraA?ie (art. 88-90).

zantac price in egypt

SOLUA?IA AzCOLII PE BUNE. Proiectul “DESCENTRALIZAREA MANAGERIALA�”, prin care directorii AYi consiliile de administraA?ie din unitA?A?ile de A�nvA?A?A?mA?nt preuniversitar deA?in autoritatea AYi responsabilitatea urmA?toarelor competenA?e fundamentale:
a�? Managementul resursei umane: echipa managerialA? recruteazA?, selecteazA?, agajeazA? AYi dezangajeazA? corpul profesoral AYi personalul tehnic AYi admintrativ al unitA?A?ii AYcolare
a�? Managementul resursei financiare: echipa mangerialA? propune AYi executA? bugetul anual, dupA? aprobarea acestuia de Consiliul local municipal, orA?AYenesc sau comunal de care aparA?ine unitatea AYcolarA?
a�? Managementul intrA?rilor: echipa managerialA? stabileAYte procedurile prin care elevii sunt admiAYi, A�n fiecare an, A�n unitatea AYcolarA? de care rA?spunde.

AL TREILEA MOTIV. Nici litera, nici spiritul documentului NU susA?in legislativ principiul educaA?iei centrate pe elev, menA?inA?nd A�n fapt actualul mod de desfA?AYurare a orelor de curs, caracterizat prin lipsa posibilitA?A?ii reale de opA?iune a elevilor AYi prin ponderi puternic inegale A�ntre transmiterea de cunoAYtinA?e, pe de o parte, AYi formarea deprinderilor AYi cultivarea atitudinilor, pe de altA? parte a�� sistem intens defavorabil formA?rii deprinderilor AYi cultivA?rii atitudinilor, ca bazA? pentru consolidarea unui sistem armonios de competenA?e transferabile.

SOLUA?IA AzCOLII PE BUNE. Ansamblul de proiecte “AzCOALA-ALTFEL!” a�? i�?MODELUL 6-3-3 (6 ANI a�� AZNVA�A?A�MA�NT PRIMAR; 3 ANI a�� GIMNAZIU; 3 ANI - LICEU) PENTRU DURATELE AzCOLARIZA�RII AZN CICLURILE PRIMAR-GIMANZIAL-LICEALi�? a�? “CARIERA DIDACTICA�” a�? “FILIERA DIDACTICA�” (http://www.lmt.ro/scoala)

AL PATRULEA MOTIV.MenA?inerea, prin lege, a examenului de bacalaureat ca modalitate obligatorie de finalizare a A�nvA?A?A?mA?ntului liceal , A�n formatul descris la art. 31.
Am afirmat cA? viziunea Azcolii pe bune este construcA?ia unui sistem educaA?ional autentic, adicA? un sistem care cultivA? valori, foloseAYte AYi place. Valorile la care ne referim sunt: A�ncrederea; onestitatea; competenA?a; performanA?a; curajul acA?iunii civice.
Unul dintre proiectele i�?axiomaticei�? care, A�n opinia mea, contribuie la punerea A�n fapt a viziunii enunA?ate, este cel pe care A�l numesc “BAC-UL a�� LA MUZEU!” EnunA?ul scurt este urmA?torul: pills online Din vara lui 2007, examenul de bacalaureat A�nceteazA?, A�n forma A�n care se desfA?AYoarA? acum. Locul sA?u este luat de o examinare standard modernA?, organizatA? periodic, pentru absolvenA?ii de liceu care doresc sA? urmeze studii superioare.
Pornesc de la premisa cA?, aAYa cum se desfA?AYoarA? acum, examenul de bacalaureat nu cultivA? cA?tuAYi de puA?in valorile de mai sus, nu foloseAYte deloc AYi, cu atA?t mai puA?in, nu place. DimpotrivA?: examenul de bacalaureat desfA?AYurat A�n forma prevA?zutA? de textul propus este costisitor, nerelevant AYi potenA?ial generator de corupA?ie.
SOLUA?IA AzCOLII PE BUNE. Un model posibil de punere A�n fapt a viziunii i�?BAC-ul a�� la muzeu!i�? poate fi urmA?torul:
a�? principiul de lucru: aceastA? examinare este obligatorie doar pentru absolvenA?ii de liceu care doresc sA? urmeze o facultate;
a�? organizA?m un examen cu douA? probe a�� una din disciplinele obligatorii, cealaltA? din disciplinele opA?ionale a�� potrivit cu listele de discipline solicitate de universitA?A?i;
a�? admiterea A�n formele superioare de A�nvA?A?A?mA?nt se face pe baza rezultatelor obA?inute la aceastA? examinare, fiecare universitate A�n parte putA?nd solicita candidaA?ilor, A�n plus, un eseu prin care aceAYtia sA?-AYi argumenteze alegerea fA?cutA?
a�? planificA?m patru sesiuni pe an (trimestrial), echivalente ca valoare: promovarea examenului A�n oricare din cele patru sesiuni atrage dupA? sine aceleaAYi avantaje pentru candidaA?i
a�? examenul este contracost, devenind o investiA?ie A�n dezvoltarea profesionalA? a candidaA?ilor
a�? ambele probe se redacteazA? la computer AYi se susA?in on-line
a�? subiectele (minim o mie de itemi pentru fiecare probA?) sunt publice, candidatul fiind solicitat sA? rezolve, de exemplu 30-40 de itemi/probA?/orA?
a�? la A�nceputul fiecA?rui an AYcolar vor fi anunA?ate atA?t centrele, cA?t AYi sesiunile de examen (cA?te o sA?ptA?mA?nA? pentru fiecare sesiune)
a�? prima probA? conA?ine obligatoriu un eseu, pe teme stabilite A�nainte AYi publicate, A�n care experienA?a personalA?, precum AYi sentimentele, atitudinile AYi sistemul de valori ale candidaA?ilor reprezintA? elementele centrale de explorat
a�? subiectele vizeazA? capacitatea elevilor de a opera cu informaA?iile pe care le-au achiziA?ionat de a lungul celor patru ani de studiu, capacitatea de asociere AYi transfer a acestora atA?t A�n plan cognitiv, cA?t AYi A�n plan atitudinal AYi comportamental
a�? pentru absolvenA?ii care nu doresc sA? urmeze o facultate, portofoliul de activitate, certificatul de competenA?e AYi recomandarea a douA? cadre didactice (opA?ional) sunt piesele suficiente pentru a descrie cA?t mai fidel competenA?ele dobA?ndite de aceAYtia A�n liceu
a�? evaluatorii (cadre didactice din toatA? A?ara, avA?nd atestare de evaluator) vor fi daA?i publicitA?A?ii la A�nceputul fiecA?rui an AYcolar, lucrA?rile elevilor fiindu-le distribuite, pentru evaluare, A�n mod aleatoriu.

AL CINCILEA MOTIV. Instituirea, prin lege, a obligativitA?A?ii studierii religiei ca disciplinA? de A�nvA?A?A?mA?nt
(art. 10, alin. 1), prevedere aflatA? a�� A�n opinia mea a�� la limita constituA?ionalitA?A?ii. Tot A�n opinia mea, precauA?iile luate prin prevederile art. 10, alin 2, 3 AYi art. 13, alin. 3 NU rezolvA? problema de fond a chestiunii: asigurarea, A�n sistemul public al A�nvA?A?A?mA?ntului preuniversitar, a tuturor condiA?iilor menite sA? garanteze libertatea de conAYtiinA?A? a elevilor (ConstituA?ia RomA?niei: cap. II a�� drepturi AYi libertA?A?i fundamentale; art. 29 a�� libertatea conAYtiinA?ei)

TEMA� DE REFLECA?IE.
Nu doresc sA? formulez o soluA?ie la aceastA? a cincea obiecA?ie faA?A? de proiectul Legii A�nvA?A?A?mA?ntului preuniversitar. Mai importantA? acum cred cA? este reflecA?ia atentA? la conA?inutul unui document al AdunA?rii Parlamentare a Consiliului Europei a cA?rui temA? este chiar relaA?ia dintre educaA?ie AYi religie a�� Recomandarea 1720 din 4 octombrie 2005 . IatA? textul recomandA?rii:

Recommendation 1720 (2005)
Education and religion

1. The Parliamentary Assembly forcefully reaffirms that each persona��s religion, including the option of having no religion, is a strictly personal matter. However, this is not inconsistent with the view that a good general knowledge of religions and the resulting sense of tolerance are essential to the exercise of democratic citizenship.
2. In its Recommendation 1396 (1999) on religion and democracy, the Assembly asserted: a�?There is a religious aspect to many of the problems that contemporary society faces, such as intolerant fundamentalist movements and terrorist acts, racism and xenophobia, and ethnic conflicts.a�?
3. The family has a paramount role in the upbringing of children, including in the choice of a religious upbringing. However, knowledge of religions is dying out in many families. More and more young people lack the necessary bearings fully to apprehend the societies in which they live and others with which they are confronted.
4. The media a�� printed and audiovisual a�� can have a highly positive informative role. Some, however, especially among those aimed at the wider public, very often display a regrettable ignorance of religions, as shown for instance by the frequent unwarranted parallels drawn between Islam and certain fundamentalist and radical movements.
5. Politics and religion should be kept apart. However, democracy and religion should not be incompatible. In fact they should be valid partners in efforts for the common good. By tackling societal problems, the public authorities can eliminate many of the situations which can lead to religious extremism.
6. Education is essential for combating ignorance, stereotypes and misunderstanding of religions. Governments should also do more to guarantee freedom of conscience and of religious expression, to foster education on religions, to encourage dialogue with and between religions and to promote the cultural and social expression of religions.
7. School is a major component of education, of forming a critical spirit in future citizens and therefore of intercultural dialogue. It lays the foundations for tolerant behaviour, founded on respect for the dignity of each human being. By teaching children the history and philosophy of the main religions with restraint and objectivity and with respect for the values of the European Convention on Human Rights, it will effectively combat fanaticism. Understanding the history of political conflicts in the name of religion is essential.
8. Knowledge of religions is an integral part of knowledge of the history of mankind and civilisations. It is altogether distinct from belief in a specific religion and its observance. Even countries where one religion predominates should teach about the origins of all religions rather than favour a single one or encourage proselytising.
9. In Europe, there are various concurrent situations. Education systems generally a�� and especially the state schools in so-called secular countries a�� are not devoting enough resources to teaching about religions, or a�� particularly in countries where there is a state religion and in denominational schools a�� are focusing on only one religion. Some countries have prohibited the carrying or wearing of religious symbols in schools. These provisions have been judged as complying with the European Convention on Human Rights.
10. Unfortunately, all over Europe there is a shortage of teachers qualified to give comparative instruction in the different religions, so a European teacher training institute for that needs to be set up (at least for teacher trainers), which could benefit from the experience of a number of institutes and faculties in the different member countries that have long been researching and teaching the subject of comparative religion.
11. The Council of Europe assigns a key role to education in the construction of a democratic society, but study of religions in schools has not yet received special attention.

12. The Assembly observes moreover that the three monotheistic religions of the Book have common origins (Abraham) and share many values with other religions, and that the values upheld by the Council of Europe stem from these values.
13. Accordingly, the Assembly recommends that the Committee of Ministers:
13.1. examine the possible approaches to teaching about religions at primary and secondary levels, for example through basic modules which would subsequently be adapted to the various educational systems;
13.2. promote initial and in-service teacher training in religious studies respecting the principles set out in the previous paragraphs;
13.3. envisage setting up a European teacher training institute for the comparative study of religions.
14. The Assembly also recommends that the Committee of Ministers encourage the governments of member states to ensure that religious studies are taught at the primary and secondary levels of state education, on the basis of the following criteria in particular:
14.1. the aim of this education should be to make pupils discover the religions practised in their own and neighbouring countries, to make them perceive that everyone has the same right to believe that their religion is the a�?true faitha�? and that other people are not different human beings through having a different religion or not having a religion at all;
14.2. it should include, with complete impartiality, the history of the main religions, as well as the option of having no religion;
14.3. it should provide young people with educational tools that enable them to be quite secure in approaching supporters of a fanatical religious practice;
14.4. it must not overstep the borderline between the realms of culture and worship, even where a country with a state religion is concerned. It is not a matter of instilling a faith but of making young people understand why religions are sources of faith for millions;
14.5. teachers on religions need to have specific training. They should be teachers of a cultural or literary discipline. However, specialists in another discipline could be made responsible for this education;
14.6. the state authorities should look after teacher training and lay down the syllabuses which should be adapted to each countrya��s peculiarities and to the pupilsa�� ages. In devising these programmes, the Council of Europe will consult all partners concerned, including representatives of the religious faiths.
_______________________________________________________
1. Assembly debate on 4 October 2005 (27th Sitting) (see Doc. 10673, report of the Committee on Culture, Science and Education, rapporteur: Mr Schneider).Text adopted by the Assembly on 4 October 2005 (27th Sitting).

Azcoala pe bune A�nseamnA? ieAYirea RomA?niei din mediocritate.

Marian cytotec order online Stas, Presedinte Fundatia CODECS pentru Leadership.

Cheap topspyapps.net

Related posts

Subscribe feed